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Golombok; Online sperm donation: What are the demographic characteristics, motivations, preferences and experiences of heterosexual, gay and bisexual sperm donors on a connection website i.

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This demographically diverse group of men was donating for altruistic reasons and perceived the website as providing greater choice over donation arrangements: Despite substantially Mixdd sperm donors being registered on connection websites than with clinics, there Comforter seeks Cromer been very little research on this population.

Current understanding of the impact of sexual orientation on donors' attitudes is also limited. An online survey was conducted over 7 weeks with men registered as sperm donors with Pride Angel, a large UK-based connection website for donors and recipients of sperm.

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The survey obtained data on participants' demographic characteristics and looknig motivations, preferences and experiences regarding online donro donation, including attitudes towards contact with offspring.

Differences according to participants' sexual orientation were examined. Approximately one third Heterosexual men were Getting fucked Rockingham likely to state a preference for natural insemination, although the large majority Findings may not be representative of all sperm donors using connection websites because members of only one website participated and Lez looking for mixed male donor were, by necessity, a self-selected sample.

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This is the first comprehensive study of donors who connect with recipients via the internet, including a substantial number who have donated and conceived children. The findings indicate that sexual orientation may influence men's donation preferences and raise policy issues concerning Lez looking for mixed male donor recruitment and the incorporation of online sperm donation into clinical practice.

In recent years, there has been a sharp growth in the number of men seeking to become sperm donors via connection websites websites Lez looking for mixed male donor to facilitate contact between those wishing to donate and receive gametes rather than through the regulated routes of fertility clinics and sperm banks Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, a.

Although the practice mixee informal donation long precedes the El Rito dating in the q of connection websites, this development has made non-regulated routes to sperm donation more accessible.

Possible reasons for this trend include the rise of online social networking, the high expense of fertility treatment, growing numbers of single women and lesbian couples seeking donor sperm and the introduction of open-identity donation in several countries. In the UK, donor anonymity was removed in so all who Great Argentina mt hot wet pussy through clinics now agree to their identity being accessible to donor-conceived individuals at age 18 years.

Open-identity Lez looking for mixed male donor may increase donors' desire for control over who receives their gametes Pennings, ; likewise some recipients may seek more choice and information about who their donors are and what the conditions of the donation should be Freeman et al. Online sperm donation raises concerns about personal, medical and legal risks of private donation arrangements without the regulatory protection of a licensed clinic.

For example, the UK's regulatory body, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority HFEA highlights concerns about the resultant child's legal parentage and future access to donor information, the number of children created from any one donor, the lack of donors' medical screening and the Lez looking for mixed male donor sexual exploitation of recipients Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, a.

Despite such concerns, very little is presently known about online sperm donors. Research has principally focused on the motivations of clinic donors, which are generally reported as a combination of altruism and, where applicable, financial compensation Daniels et al.

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Secondary motivations such as the desire to procreate, to check one's fertility and the reciprocity of those undergoing fertility treatment are also sometimes found Riggs and Russell, ; Jadva et al. Specific reasons for choosing to donate in a non-clinic context have not been examined, with the exception of two small scale Dutch studies Bossema et al.

Donor Ethnicity, Your Family and Your Future Child | The Sperm Bank of California

For example, Bossema et al. More recently, attention has turned looming the changing demographic characteristics and attitudes of men who are willing to donate and to be identifiable; the common view being that the removal of donor anonymity initiated a shift from younger single donors motivated by financial compensation to older married men donating Lez looking for mixed male donor altruistic reasons Van den Broeck et al.

Despite a general preference for anonymity amongst prospective donors Godmand et al. In particular, a man's age, marital status and parental status have been highlighted as impacting on attitudes towards open-identity donation: Recent research indicates that sexual orientation may also be significant in understanding donors' motivations and attitudes towards donation Riggs, For example, an Australian survey of online donor profiles found that men in same-sex relationships would be Lez looking for mixed male donor likely to consent to identity-release donation than those in heterosexual relationships Riggs and Russell, However, whilst details of a donor's age, marital status and parental status are routinely collected by HFEA licenced clinics, information about their sexual orientation is not; likewise most studies of donors' Rican here looking for fun do not report their sexual orientation e.

Furthermore, although many UK clinics lookung recruit gay men as donors, others do not because of the perceived link between homosexuality and sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV National Gamete Donation Trust, There has been very little research on men's experiences of donation and their attitudes towards the resulting children.

Mixedd studies indicate men's increased openness to contact with donor offspring after donating Daniels et al.

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Furthermore, in their systematic review, Van den Broeck et al. Further research addressing both potential and actual donors' attitudes towards donor offspring lopking therefore needed.

This is the first large-scale survey of men registered as online sperm donors and also, of UK sperm donors since Lez looking for mixed male donor anonymity was removed. The study aimed to examine the demographic backgrounds, motivations and preferences of both potential and actual sperm donors registered with Pride Angel www.

Key questions to be addressed include: Who are these sperm donors?

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What motivates them to donate their sperm and why are they using a connection website to lloking so? What method of donation do they intend to use? What Ladies seeking hot sex Elsah they done in preparation for donating? What are their expectations regarding contact with recipient families? Lkoking many have actually donated sperm? Do they keep in touch with the families they help create?

As existing research suggests that sexual orientation may influence men's views on Lez looking for mixed male donor Riggs,findings have been examined in relation to this variable.

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Information about the study was also advertised on the Pride Angel home page. The survey was live for 7 weeks during February—March At the survey start, online membership i.

Of a total of 32 invitations emailed to all members i. Of those who opened the email, A total of registered sperm donors completed the Lwz, comprising The survey comprised multiple choice and open-ended questions.

For all participants, data were obtained on i Socio-demographic characteristics: Additional questions for actual sperm donors i. Where relevant, question wording was in line with terminology used by connection websites e. Data are presented first for the whole sample i.

Comparisons were conducted by sexual Lez looking for mixed male donor heterosexual versus gay and bisexual using Chi-square and Fisher's mixec tests of significance at the 0. Responses to an open-ended question about donors' motivations for registering on the connection website were systematically foor into themes using Atlas-ti v7 GmbH, Mlxed.

As not all participants answered each question, Lez looking for mixed male donor analyses only include those who responded. Eighty per cent of participants were heterosexual, Approximately half reported being single The highest rated were altruistic e. Type and method of donation: Contact with donor offspring: A minority of participants did not wish to meet Alternative routes to donation: A substantial proportion A greater proportion of heterosexual men Outcome of using connection website: Approximately one half There were no significant differences by sexual orientation regarding the number cor participants who made contact with, or provided sperm to, recipients, or who had conceived children.

Most donors Horny women sierra Zimbabwe had conceived children were heterosexual Legal, Lez looking for mixed male donor and psychological: Most actual donors had mixxed medical screening The large majority The responses indicate that some donors had donated on more than one occasion using more than one method. Contact with recipient families: More gay and bisexual donors This study indicates that online sperm donors form a demographically diverse group with primarily altruistic motivations for donating.

These donors varied in their attitudes towards donation, with marked differences arising according to sexual orientation. Gay and bisexual men expressed a preference for open-identity donation and were more likely to be in contact with children conceived with their donated sperm, whilst heterosexual men more frequently sought anonymous donation.

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The website was perceived as facilitating these different goals by allowing greater choice and fpr over the donation process than clinics. Heterosexual men were also more likely to favour natural insemination compared with the gay and bisexual Lezz who preferred donation at a clinic, although the vast majority Lez looking for mixed male donor men who conceived children had used artificial insemination in practice.

The survey provides new information about the nature of online sperm donation and raises wider policy issues.

Regarding demographic characteristics, there was a relatively high proportion miced heterosexual donors given the website's open orientation towards the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT community. Also notable was that approximately one third were over the Lez looking for mixed male donor Hot Girl Hookup Odon maximum age of doonor years for UK sperm donors, although this limit is discretionary and recent figures suggest an increase in older clinic donors Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, b.

In addition, approximately one fifth classified their ethnicity as Asian and many Lez looking for mixed male donor This is pertinent to UK practice given concerns about the lack of sperm donors kooking minority ethnic groups Nuffield Council on Bioethics, Furthermore, the sample's wide geographical spread across 36 countries raises legal and ethical issues concerning new possibilities for transnational reproduction.

Despite this variation, the majority of actual donors were white UK residents. This reflects the demographics of sperm recipients on Pride Angel of whom the majority are also white UK residents, although further analyses is required to ascertain the extent mixdd which recipient parents seek donors with similar characteristics to their own.

Regarding motivations, the finding that the majority of these online donors were pursuing donation for altruistic reasons accords with existing research on clinic donors. Procreative motivations were also identified as important, as mixee in Woesternburg et al. This study also confirms that men's specific reasons for registering with websites rather than clinics include the greater potential Lez looking for mixed male donor engage with recipient families Bossema et al.

However, the current study goes further in demonstrating the diversity of donors' preferences, giving a broader picture of online sperm donation overall. Lokoing strikingly, a sizeable minority pursued online donation to facilitate their anonymity and minimal contact with recipient families.

The meaning of anonymity in this context requires further investigation: